ZINC is considered a trace element because the body requires only small amounts to function. Zinc functions mainly as an essential constituent of cell enzyme systems. Though the body requires only small amounts of zinc, inadequate levels can affect proper detoxification. One of these important enzymes, carbonic anhydrase, of which zinc is an integral part, acts as a carbon dioxide carrier, especially in red blood cells, and catalyzes the reaction. It takes carbon dioxide from cells and delivers it to the lungs for expulsion, and also functions in the renal tubule cells. Superoxide dismutase continuously removes the highly reactive superoxide radical, protecting cells against dangerous levels of superoxide. Alcohol dehydrogenase changes alcohol to aldehyde, the first step in the metabolism of alcohols by the liver.
MANGANESE is necessary for the function of glutathione synthetase, an enzyme needed for the body to make the Detox conjugator glutathione from glycine. Glutathione functions in various redox reactions: (1) in the destruction of peroxides and free radicals, (2) as a cofactor for enzymes, and (3) in the detoxification of harmful compounds. Glutathione also functions in the transport of amino acids across cell membranes. Manganese is also necessary for the proper utilization of iron. Superoxide dismutase is also a manganese-containing metalloenzyme, catalyzing the breakdown of superoxide free radicals thereby protecting the cells against peroxidative damage.
IRON is an element essential to life. It is essential in its role in the transportation of oxygen in the body and permits cellular respiration to occur.
MOLYBDENUM is an essential trace mineral that functions as an enzyme co factor. Certain molybdenum metalloenzymes oxide and detoxify various compounds that play a role in uric acid metabolism and sulfate toxicity.