The Wellness Report
Energy Production

Energy Production

Energy is produced in our cells in a three-stage process.

In stage one, the breakdown components of food can be utilized to begin the process of producing energy. 

Carbohydrates are converted into glucose; fats provide fatty acids; and amino acids come from proteins. 

Although any of these can be used to produce energy, in general carbohydrates are the body's preferred choice.  Any of these three components can first be converted to Acetyl-CoA.  The B-vitamin, pantothenic acid, is a component of Coenzyme A (CoA).  Stage two can begin once this conversion occurs.

Stage two is the citric acid cycle also known as the Krebs cycle.  Acetyl CoA enters this cycle to begin stage two.  This is a series of circular reactions that release hydrogen.  Many of these reactions involve B-complex vitamins as cofactors to drive them.  There are coenzymes in the citric acid cycle that are dependent upon B-complex vitamins, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), and pyridoxine (B6).    The hydrogen then serves as the source material for stage three.

In stage three, the hydrogen produced in stage two is used to produce Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP.  ATP is the energy currency of the cells and is used to power cellular functions of all types.  Once used, ATP is recycled so that it can be recharged for future use.

More about energy production
Nutrients, Diet & Lifestyle


PANTOTHENIC ACID plays a role in the release of energy from carbohydrates; in gluconeogenesis; in the synthesis and degradation of fatty acids; and in the synthesis of such vital compounds as sterols and steroid hormones and porphyrins

FOLIC ACID is a water-soluble B vitamin that is important in both the production and synthesis of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA). Because the daily folate requirement is hinged to the daily metabolic and cell turnover rates, its need is increased by anything that increases the rate of either, such as physical stress. Folic acid’s metabolic role is interdependent with B-12 and both are required for cell growth and reproduction in the body.

VITAMIN B-12 is water-soluble vitamin necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), the maintenance of myelin in the nervous system, and the proper functioning of folic acid.  Two important interrelationships exist between B-12 and folic acid. First, both are required for growth, which is dependent on cell replication, and cell replication is dependent on DNA synthesis.  Vitamin B-12 is also necessary for the transport and storage of folate in cells.

 VITAMIN C occurs in large concentrations in both parts of the adrenal gland.  It is essential in the production of the two active hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla.  Even though the adrenals are rich in vitamin C, upon secretion of corticosteroids large amounts of vitamin C are lost from them.

Dietary Suggestions

● Eat tuna, salmon or deep-water ocean fish several times a week.

● Brown rice, nuts, olive oil and whole grains are good dietary additions.

● Include fruits and vegetables, especially green leafy varieties, garlic and onions.

● Avoid consuming fats and fried foods; processed foods, red meat, ham and pork.

● Avoid alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, sodas, sugar and white flour.


● Do get moderate exercise regularly.

● Avoid stress & sustained tension.